Day 1 :
University of Wyoming, USA
Keynote: Understanding plant diversity and physiology for resilient production systems and environmental benefits
Time : 09:30-10:15
University of Illinois, USA
Time : 10:15 - 11:00
Bacterial spot of cucurbits, caused by Xanthomonas cucurbitae, is an emerging disease in the United States (US) and other cucurbit growing areas of the world. The pathogen can infect all cucurbit crops, but its major hosts are pumpkins and winter squash. Leaves and fruits of cucurbits are infected by X. cucurbitae at all growth stages. Infected fruits are usually colonized by opportunistic fungi and bacteria and rot. Our surveys in the North Central Region if the US during 2012-2013 showed that 159 of 180 and 71 of 79 of pumpkin and squash fields, respectively, had fruits infected with X. cucurbitae. The average incidence of fruits with bacterial spot in all pumpkin and squash fields surveyed was 25 and 19%, respectively. We identify the pathogen based on the colony morphology on yeast dextrose agar (YDC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test using RST2/RST3 primers, and pathogenicity test on susceptible pumpkin ‘Howden’. X. cucurbitae survived in infected leaves and fruits in the field for more than 24 months. Also, X. cucurbitae survived longer than 18 months in the seeds at 4 and 22°C and remained viable. No cultivar of cucurbits resistant to X. cucurbitae is available. We eradicated the pathogen in the naturally-infected and artificially infested seeds by hot-water treatment at 55°C for 15 min and HCl treatment at 0.5% concentration for 40 min. Also, in our field trials, copper oxychloride + copper hydroxide (Badge X2 DF), copper sulfate (Cuprofix Ultra 40 DF), oxytetracycline (Mycoshield 40 WSP), copper sulfate pentahydrate (Phyton-016B), copper hydroxide (Kocide-3000 46.1 DF) plus acibenzolar-s-methyl (ActiGard 50 WG), Kocide-3000 46.1 DF plus famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos 50D WG), an extract from Reynoutria sachalinensis (Regalia), and B. subtilis (Serenade ASO) were effective in reducing incidence and severity of bacterial spot on both leaves and fruits compared to controls.
University of Agricultural Sciences, India
Keynote: Molecular characterization, epidemiology and integrated management of Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) in papaya (Carica papaya L.)
Time : 11:20-12:05
N Nagaraju graduated in University of Agricultural Sciences Bengaluru and expertise in Plant Virology. He worked as an Extension Pathologist during 1998-2010 and expertise in diagnosis, identification of plant disease and recommending suitable management practices. He is serving in UAS, Bengaluru since 20 years and worked on different plant viruses viz., Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV), Pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV), Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (ToSPO) and other Gemini viruses. He developed integrated management practices for the important viruses for sustainable agriculture and were included in University Package of Practice. He is presently working on use of bio-molecules for inducing defense in crop plant against plant viruses.
Papaya cultivation is worldwide ravaged by Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) disease. Surveys conducted in Southern Karnataka during 2012-2014 revealed the maximum PRSV incidence in Bangalore Rural (77.53%) followed by Bangalore Urban (68.89%), Kolar (65.00%) and Chikkaballapura (52.78%) districts. Monitoring of the population of different aphid species during August-2013 to July-2014 using yellow sticky traps revealed the occurrence of eight aphid species. Of which, three species viz., Aphis gossypii (66.04%), A. craccivora (26.80%) and Myzus persicae (2.12%) were regularly trapped throughout the year. Transmission studies proved that, M. persicae (53.33%) was more efficient vector in transmitting PRSV followed by A. gossypii (46.66%) and A. craccivora (26.66%). The aphid population was peak when rainfall was below 8.00 mm with temperature range of 17-350C, relative humidity of 30-90% and with wind speed of 3-5km/hr. Based on the symptoms on differential var. Red lady, the PRSV isolates viz., BRD-1, BRH-1, BUH-1 were considered as severe, while MMD-1 and MML-1 as mild isolates. Partial characterization of isolate BUH-1 by CP gene showed highest homology of 98% with South Indian and 87-92% with Asian isolates. Among the defence inducing molecules Salicylic [email protected] 0.002%, Silicic [email protected] 0.2% and Boric [email protected] 0.2% found effective in reducing the disease under field and glasshouse condition. In PRSVdisease management studies, growing papaya as intercrop with African Tall maize (1:1) and Grand Naine banana
- Plant physiology | Plant disease and plant pathogens| Plant and agricultural Biotechnology | Traditional medicine |
Location: Avani Atrium Bangkok
University of Wyoming, USA
Green World Genetics Sdn Bhd, Malaysia
Green World Genetics Sdn Bhd, Malaysia
Time : 12:05- 12:40
Rajeev Taggar has been associated with biotechnology in the seed industry for about 20 years. As a Scientist in-charge of molecular breeding activities, he worked with Bayer CropScience, India, Krishidhan Seeds, India, ICRISAT, India and Green World Genetics Sdn Bhd, Malaysia (Presently working). Working closely with a team of crop breeders, he established molecular breeding laboratories and molecular breeding programmes for his employer organizations. He got professional training in plant biotechnological techniques from Germany on a DSE-sponsored course, from the central research facility of Nunhems Zaden, the Netherlands and from the John Innes Centre (U.K.).
The indigenous seed industry in most developing countries comprises of small and medium scale seed industry. This is supplemented by satellite research laboratories and sales & marketing units of the large trans-national companies. From the angle of application of plant biotechnology, some of the factors playing a decisive role for the indigenous small and medium scale seed industry include quick delivery of results, readily available technologies, minimal risk in investment, proven technologies and minimal financial resources. The large scale trans-national seed companies on the other hand have the investment potential for capital-intensive research and novel research with distant returns. The academia in both, the developing and the developed countries tend to be driven more by novel research having publication potential rather than by application value. Such a situation presents the indigenous small and medium scale seed industry in the developing nations with a unique challenge of having to do with a technical work force who have a gap in training and application and to deliver with limited capital resources. This talk will cover an overview of plant biotechnology. An attempt will be made to present the actual seed industry situation in the developing countries. Plant biotechnology will be sectioned into various areas of application, of which the small and medium scale seed industry is one. The areas of strength and weakness will be discussed. With the advent of low cost sequencers, the molecular-breeding scenario is likely to change at all levels. A paradigm shift in challenges from infrastructure to analytics is expected. Discovery research versus applied research will be discussed. The clarity shed on the applications of plant biotechnology in developing countries should be a handy tool for the aspiring plant biotech professionals, seed industry in the developing countries and for the governmental policy makers.
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh
Title: Ethno-medicinal plant diversity of Bangladesh – their conservation status at the botanical garden of Bangladesh Agricultural University
Time : 12:40-13:15
A K M Golam Sarwar, a Professor of Plant Systematics at the Bangladesh Agricultural University, has his expertise in Bio-resources and Production Science (major in Pollen Morphology and Ericaceae Systematics). Four discoveries in angiosperm palynology and another one in seed physiology of rice. Recipient of “Young Researcher Award 2009” of Palynological Society of Japan. Graduate student adv isory committee Chair/Member: MS 5 (ongoing), 17 (Completed) and PhD 5 (ongoing). Now, Dr Sarwar is leading huge conservation activities on ethno-medicinal plant biodiversity of Bangladesh as the Curator, Botanical Garden, the 2nd largest of this type in Bangladesh, of Bangladesh Agricultural University. His current research interests are on Ethno-botany, Plant Morphology, Biodiversity and Conservation related issues, and Bio-energy crops.
Statement of the Problem: Ethno-Medicinal plant genetic resources are one of the most important elements of biodiversity which support life system on earth. Over 50% of prescription drugs are derived from chemicals those first identified in plants. Bangladesh, as a part of the ancient Indian subcontinent, has a long history on use of plants in the traditional medicine as Ayurvedic, Unani and Tibetan System of Medicine. Although occupies relatively small geographical area, She is rich in both floral and faunal diversities. Bangladesh is also rich in ethnic minority population and people of more than 27 ethnic minorities groups live in Bangladesh. The flowering plants diversity in Bangladesh varies from 3,813 to 5,700 species. More than 750 species have been prescribed for the treatment of different diseases in traditional medicine. The Botanic Gardens Conservation International identified 400 medicinal plants at risk of world-wide extinction from over-collection and deforestation, threatening the discovery of future cures for disease. On contrary, an estimated 80% of people, the majority of these people in developing countries, worldwide rely on traditional, largely herbal, medicine to meet their primary healthcare needs. On this back ground, the Botanical garden of Bangladesh Agricultural University has initiated programmes on ex situ conservation of plants with ethno-medicinal importance along with other conservation activities from its inception in 1963.Findings & Conclusion: The Botanical garden has harbored a large collection of ethno-medicinal plants; more than 350 species have been conserved, and the number is ever increasing. Among these, 23 species are threatened in Bangladesh territory; however, many of them are rare in the wild. The important uses of collected medicinal plants have also been described. As the population density is increasing in an alarming rate, proper attention should be given to conserve the ethno-medicinal plant resources of Bangladesh for the welfare of human being and animal health.
University of Sumatera Utara, Indonesia
Time : 14:15-14:50
Yusuf Leonard Henuk is a Professor in the Faculty of Agriculture at University of Sumatera Utara (USU), Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia. He received a Bachelor’s degree (S1: ‘Sarjana’) from the the University of Nusa Cendana in Kupang-Indonesia from 1980-1984. He obtained Master in Rural Science (M.Rur.Sc.) from the University of New England in from 1991 – 1995 and continued Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) from the University of Queensland both in Australia from 1998 – 200. Prof. Henuk was a prolific writer and has published many articles in either national or international journal within the field of agriculture and mainly animal sciences. He also participated in many national in Indonesia and international seminars.
Many crops that supply carbohydrates grow well in Indonesia, including cereals (rice, maize, sorghum, foxtailmillet), tubers (cassava, sweetpotato, potato, arrowroot, canna), and tree crops (sago, breadfruit, banana). The variety of staple foods consumed by Indonesians was diverse. During the period 2004 –2013ˏ the four main staple crops in Indonesia were rice (53.5% of diet), cassava (22.2% of diet), maize (18.9% of diet), and potatoes (4.99% of diet). In 2012, for exampleˏIndonesian rice consumption was about 130kg/person/year, higher than the average world level of 60kg/person/year. Over the last ten years, except for DKI Jakarta, all provinces increased cereal production from 2004 – 2013. The largest increases were in Kepulauan Riau (11.43%) and Gorontalo (10.51%). Exports of major food commodities are concentrated in few countries. For maize dan rice, in particular, the global export market is largely dominated by top five exporters on globally trade grainsˏ i.e. The United States, Argentinaˏ Brazilˏ Franceˏ China and Thailandˏ Vietnamˏ Indiaˏ The United Statesˏ Pakistanˏ respectively. Indonesia has achieved the MDG hunger target, by reducing the proportion of undernourished people from 19.7% of the population in 1990–92 to 8.7% in 2012–2014. The poultry industry consumes approximately 83% of Indonesia’s animal feed. Aquaculture consumes 11% and the remaining 6% is consumed by cattle and swine. On average, livestock feed is composed of corn (50%), soybean meal (15-20%), corn gluten meal (3%), CPO (2%), fish meal (5%), rice bran (15%), wheat pollard (8%), and premix (0.6%). Indonesian feed millers are heavily reliant on imported feed ingredients from the top five exporters on globally trade grains above. Beef alone accounted for about 19% with 2.50kg/capita/year of Indonesia’s total meat consumption compared to broiler of 55% with 3.751kg/capita/year, native chickens of 11% with 0.528kg/capita/year, pork of 8% with 0.156kg/capita/year, goat of 7% with 0.111kg/capita/year, and others species 1% with its total per capita meat consumption from livestock in Indonesia is still lower compared to many countries and they generally increases with higher income. Rank and score of global food index of Indonesia from 2012 to 2015 as follows: 64ˏ 66ˏ 72ˏ 74 and 46.8ˏ45.6ˏ 46.5ˏ 46.7 respectively. Indonesia is in “Moderate Environment” in 2016 with overall rank 13/23 in Asia and Pacific by income level with overall score of 50.6/100.
Assam Agricultural University, India
Title: How wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop does respond to aerosols of oxidized and reduced nitrogen along with light regime, physiological drought and substratum types?
Time : 14:50-15:25
Academic degrees: B.Sc.(Agri,), M.Sc.(Agri), Ph.D.(Biology), DIC (Bryophyte Physiology) London University. At present position is working as a Professor & Head (Crop Physiology), Assam, Agricultural University, India Hobby: Travelling, Reading, Playing with kids and cooking at home Challenges: Meeting Deadlines, Fighting with Destiny etc.
The aim of the investigation was to study the impacts of some abiotic factors on the responses of wheat crop (variety: Ankur Omkar) to oxidised (NaNO2) and reduced (NH4Cl) aerosols in field situation. Natural light was reduced to ≈50% using standard hessian cloth, and physiological drought was induced by spraying PEG-6000 @5000ppm (≈0.05bar). Substratum types were natural acid soil with FYM @5 t/ha (pH 5.03), acid-mineral soil (natural acid soil with FYM @10 t/ha, pH between 5.92) and acid-mineral soil mixed with FYM @10 t/ha added with lime @ 0.5t/ha (pH 6.46).There were positive effects of the aerosols on wheat crop under normal light condition, and low light suppressed the nitrogen assimilation and physiological performance of wheat. During the physiological drought condition, the aerosols showed negative impacts on wheat crop. The reduced aerosol acted as an acidifying agent, which was deleterious to the crop. Soil amended with higher dose (10t/ha) of FYM further exerted negative influence to the crop. Acid soil amended with lime (supply of Ca2+) ameliorates the negative impacts of the aerosols on yield attributes of wheat crop.
Statement of the Problem: Atmospheric wet and dry depositions of Nitrogen are important processes in the redistribution of nitrogen throughout the environment. Nitrogen oxides (NO2, NO but not N2O) reacting with intercellular water get converted into HNO2 and HNO3, which then dissociate to form nitrate, nitrite and protons. Higher concentration (<10 µll-1) of oxides of nitrogen alter the physiological processes including net photosynthesis, dark respiration, root:shoot ratios in plants and yields. Cellular plasmolysis is caused by the lipid breakdown in membrane. Acidification of the ecosystem may also result from the deposition of gaseous NH3 and particulate NH4+ (collectively NHy). Plants fed with Ammonia at high concentration (>1mM) suffer from its toxicity.
Banque Nationale de Genes, Tunisia
Title: Description and analysis of phenotypic diversity in Daucus L. germplasm collection in Tunisia for species and subspecies identification
Time : 15:25-16:00
Najla Mezghani is an Assistant Professor in the National Gene Bank of Tunisia. She has her expertise in plant biotechnology and genetics. She is working in the field of plant genetic resources and she is particularly responsible of the ‘Vegetable, condiment and ornamental genetic resources conservation and evaluation’ program.
Statement of the problem: Daucus carota L. is a morphologically diverse species found throughout the Mediterranean regions and in many continents worldwide. Among Mediterranean regions, Tunisia is considered a center of biodiversity for Daucus and many other crops because of the diverse ecosystems and climatic conditions. Although some floristic treatments have been published in the past few decades, many of Daucus species are without an adequate description. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the patterns of phenotypic diversity in a Tunisian Daucus collection in order to elucidate the interrelationship between the conserved accessions and to verify the suitability of morphological characterization for species and subspecies identification in our collection. Plant material and methodology: A total of 120 Daucus accessions including cultivated carrot (D. carota subsp. sativus) and wild relatives from different geographic and bioclimatic regions in Tunisia were surveyed and characterized morphologically using 30 qualitative parameters related to vegetative and reproductive parts of the plant. Quantiﬁcation of variability for each character was investigated using the standardized Shannon–Weaver diversity index (H’). Diversity was established by multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis. Findings: The estimated H’ index ranged from monomorphic for umbel type and position of involucral bracts on primary umbel to highly polymorphic for other traits. The highest (0.99) and the lowest (0.24) H’ values were recorded for flowering pattern within plants and foliage coverage traits respectively. Multivariate analysis and cluster analysis permitted the subdivision of the Daucus collection into 9 distinct groups supporting traditional taxonomic treatments with a distinction of cultivated carrot from the closely related wild species. Conclusion: Morphological data provide considerable information that is useful to distinguish species and subspecies in the difficult Daucus genus. Our results serve as a basis for verification and possible reidentification of Daucus accessions in Tunisia and elsewhere.
St. Ann's College for Women, India
Title: A comprehensive study on ethno pharmacological antidiabetic potential of traditional medicinal plants of India
Time : 16:20-16:55
In India, from ancient times, different parts of medicinal plants have been used to cure specific diseases and are a major source of many potent and powerful drugs. Of late, natural phytochemicals have gained a lot of attention as they have shown tremendous promise in promoting human health. Diabetes mellitus which is one of the common diseases the world over, has been defined as a group of metabolic disorders distinguished mainly by hyperglycemia induced by impaired insulin secretion, insulin resistance or both entities in varying proportions. Around 90-95% of patients (285 million) suffer with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. This number might exceed 435 million in 2030 due to life style changes. Despite availability of known antidiabetic drugs in the market, diabetes and its associated complications continue to pose a formidable challenge. In addition to oral agents and insulin therapy, phytotherapy is an alternative that provides a range of natural resources with hypoglycemic effects and has been effectively employed as an antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic remedy. This presentation will enhance further research on the potential use of medicinal plants having antidiabetic potential including hypoglycemic activity, insulin mimetic activity and antioxidant activity. The study will be invaluable to stakeholders in the fields of ethno-pharmacology, natural product chemistry and drug discovery research.
Roohaida Othman received her PhD in Biochemistry from University of Southampton, and joined Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia as a lecturer immediately after in 1995. Her research interest is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of commercially important metabolites in plants and algae. Her research group has employed tools of molecular biology, biochemistry and physiology as well as genomics and transgenics technology platforms to study the enzymes involved in these pathways. They have also developed protocols for higher plant and algae RNA extraction methods and overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. She has been Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Tropical Plant Physiology since 2010 and has been reviewer for several journals including International Journal of Food Properties.
An accurate view of any biological event or process requires a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of the complex interactions in biological systems. This systems biology approach involves interdisciplinary research to develop the computational reconstruction of these systems which will be useful in predicting function and behavior in a system. Different types of large datasets such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics have been integrated through advanced computer science and computational analyses to enable rapid and accurate quantification of the components of the experimental system in a single experiment. Systems biology in plant research has gained considerable attention over the past decade even though not as extensive as for human and animal studies. Nevertheless, most of the systems biology research in plant has been mainly focused on the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, due to the vast information already obtained regarding this plant. Many crops and plants including those found in the tropics have been studied using the systems biology approach, at least at the level of identification of components through generation of more than one types of large omic datasets. Some examples of these advanced plant systems biology research as well as the basic studies on component identification of tropical plants will be reviewed in this paper. The ultimate aim of this paper is to encourage the botanical research community to utilize this approach in their respective research field which might provide a holistic answer to their specific scientific questions.
The University of Queensland, Australia
Title: Biochemical and functional characteristic of Davidsonia pruriens and Davidsonia jerseyana fruit tea
Time : 17:30-18:05
Nilesh Nirmal has his expertise in evaluation of plant based food additive as replacement to synthetic additives. He has extensive experience in phytochemical analyses, various antioxidant assay, antimicrobial assay, anti-denaturation assay, antimelanotic assay. He also has interest in enzyme purification, characterization and its application. He introduced the low cost simple one step preparation of brazilin rich compound through column chromatography (Nirmal and Panichayupakaranant, 2014). This technique reduces the extensive financial burden of purification industry. He had developed natural plant based additives for inhibition of blackening in prawn (shrimp). This approach led to the green plant based additives which ultimately help food industries as well as consumer acceptance and well-being.
Statement of the Problem: Davidson’s plum (Davidsonia pruriens and Davidsonia jerseyana) is one of the Australian native fruits originated from the North Queensland. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the biochemical and functional characteristics of Davidsonia pruriens (DP) and Davidsonia jerseyana (DJ) fruit tea. Moreover, sensory analyses of fruit teas were also conducted to examine the consumer acceptance. Methodology: Dried fruits sheets were brewed with boiled water (2g / 250ml) for 5 min and extract collected. Samples were subjected to biochemical analyses. The phenolic compounds in the samples were assessed by using UHPLC system (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA) coupled with MS. Chromatographic separation was carried out with mobile phase A (H20 containing 0.1% formic acid) and mobile phase B (acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid). Organic acid in the samples were analyzed using a binary HPLC pump with photodiode array detector. The antioxidant capacity of samples was determined by using DPPH radical scavenging activity. Sensory evaluation of samples was conducted by using 9-point hedonic scale. Findings: Total phenolic content in DP and DJ was 10.37 and 11.32 mg GAE/g of dry sheet, respectively. UPHLC analysis of DP and DJ indicated gallic acid was the major phenolic compound with DJ having significantly higher level (P<0.05). Organic acid analysis showed the presence of only mallic acid in both samples. Antioxidant activities of DP and DJ were comparable (P>0.05). Flavor and taste score was higher for DJ compared to DP (P<0.05). However, overall acceptance score for both samples was not significantly different. Conclusion & Significance: DJ contained high level of gallic acid as well as mallic acid as compared to DP, which affect the taste of the DP fruit tea. However, likeness score for Davidsonia plum fruit showed promising results for Davidsonia pruriens and Davidsonia jerseyana as a fruit tea.