Young Ho Yoon is Senior Researcher on National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration (RDA) in South Korea. He has been devoted the study of development of buckwheat variety and post-harvesting of miscellaneous grain crop such as sorghum, millet and buckwheat. He has contributed a wealth of information concerning functionality through his research of Tatary (bitter) buckwheat. Recently, he has interested in the stable production of upland farming and the promotion of agricultural mechanization. He is acting in assistant administrator position of ‘mechanization in upland farming and value added agriculture’ project at RDA.
Grain sorghum(Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has been widely consumed as a traditional foods such as steamed kernels with rice and beverages in korea. In this study, effects of separation of seeds by size and grain moisture content on milling recovery and quality were investigated. Previous study reported that dehulling and milling of sorghum seeds after seed size screening affects milling recovery ratio and quality. The first experiment of this study focused on difference of ratio of the milled grains, intact grains(true whole grain after milling) and whiteness among 4 sorghum cultivars after grain sorghum were milled by polishing machine for the same amount of time (2 minutes and 30 seconds). Greater size of seeds had greater ratio of the milled grains and whole intact grains, whereas sorghum grains with no size screening of grain and smaller sizes than 3.5 mm had the smallest ratio of the milled grains and intact grains. When seeds with greater sizes than 4.0 mm were milled, the ratio of intact grains was ranged between 77.4 and 85.0 depending on cultivars. This result was 4.5% greater than ones from no size screening of grain. The whiteness of seeds that were milled under the same conditions had the greater values from seed sizes greater than 4 mm than ones from no screening throughout the all cultivars. This experiment resulted in that smaller seeds needed a longer milling time in order to achieve the same whiteness level as bigger seeds. The other experiment in this study investigated effects of the moisture content in grain sorghum by hot air drying on milling recovery rate and quality. Previous study reported that seeds were milled after drying for a certain time since moisture content in grain were ranged between 14.3 and 27.6% on 45 days after heading by cultivar. In result, as seeds had smaller than 16% of moisture content, they tended to have greater whiteness levels, but smaller milled head grain recovery rates. The future research will focus on method for drying and optimal moisture content in grain sorghum to prevent seed decay and higher milling recovery and quality.
Dr Anna Kot has her expertise in environmental microbiology. Primary she has focused her study on waste management, especially organic waste from food industry and its impact on soil microbial activity, functional and genetic diversity. Her study proving that utilization of that kind of waste can be safe for the environment and beneficial for agriculture and land reclamation. Recently she has expanded her interest of plant pathology. As a member of research team supervised by Dr Adam Kuzdraliński, she takes part in designing assay based on molecular biology for detection of the most common wheat pathogens. Results can let to a better diagnosis of fungal diseases and optimal fungicides application
The species Puccinia triticina (Pt) and Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) are devastating cereal pathogens that cause brown/leaf and yellow/stripe rust diseases, respectively. Both fungi are an obligate parasites capable of producing infectious urediniospores as long as infected leaf tissue remains alive. They are responsible for significant yield losses of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that may have ranged from 10% to 70% depending on susceptibility of the cultivar, initial infection rate, development and duration of disease. The early detection of fungal pathogens can lead to preventive measures and minimize economic losses through i.e. fungicidal control. The molecular methods are the most reliable for monitoring of disease development and early pathogens detection (Fig 1). Multiplex PCR has the potential to target and differentiate more than one species at the same time. In the present study, we develop a conventional PCR assays for the simultaneous species-specific detection of Pt and Pst. The Multiplex PCR assay targets the second largest subunits of the RNA polymerase II (rpb2) for Pt and beta-tubulin 1 (tub1) genes for Pst. The specificities of the PCR primers were verified using naturally infected plant materials with visual symptoms of rust diseases and diseases caused by other whet pathogens (Blumeria graminis, Drechslera tritici-repentis and Septoria tritici). The primer sets LidPs9/10 and LidPr1/2 produced a single DNA fragments of lengths 240 and 144 bp, respectively. No cross-reactions were observed with tested fungal pathogens and healthy plant tissues. The detection limit of singular primer sets was reached at 1 pg for Pt and 50 pg for Pts. The assay shows 100% effectiveness in rust fungi detection that make them promising tools for determining the proper schedule for plant protection.