Day 2 :
University of Missouri, USA
Keynote: RNA-Seq analysis reveals host plant transcriptomes in response to agrobacterium-mediated transformation
Time : 09:30-10:15
Zhanyuan J Zhang has expertise in Plant Genetic Transformation and Gene Regulation. He got his Ph.D. in the area of Plant Genetic Engineering at University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE, USA. He has been the director of Plant Transformation Core Facility at University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo, USA since 2000. The mission of his core facility is to enhance both basic and Applied Plant Biology studies by providing Plant Transformation services and to advance transgenic technologies. He has contributed to the transformation system improvements in soybean, maize, sorghum, wheat, and switchgrass. His interest in gene regulation has led to the validation and revealing of effective RNAi in soybean and novel approach for plant gene silencing employing artificial trans-acting siRNA. His research efforts in basic study of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has discovered the role pf the heat shock protein 90.1 in this T-DNA transfer process.
Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation has become a predominant tool for many basic studies and biotechnological applications. Discoveries in molecular mechanisms governing this transformation process have significant implications in both basic and applied plant biotechnological applications. To date, however, knowledge about plant genes and associated pathways involved in the Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transfer has been very limited. Here, we employed RNA-seq to exploit Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptomes in responses to Agrobacterium transformation process. We used two contrasting Agrobacterium strains to infect Arabidopsis young seedlings using AGROBEST assay protocol. The two strains included a non-oncogenic disarmed Agrobacterium strain, A136, and At804 which is a derivative of EHA105 and contains a disarmed super virulent Ti-plasmid and a binary vector pBISN1. The strain A136 lacks Ti-plasmid and therefore is unable to deliver T-DNA and effector (Vir) proteins to plant cells. This is in contrast to At804 which is capable of transferring both T-DNA and effector proteins into plant cells. Arabidopsis tissue samples for RNA-Seq were from three different treatment conditions, i.e., mock, A136 and At804, at 6 different time points (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours), respectively, during the Agrobacterium infection. Total RNA samples at each time point were then subject to NGS analysis. The transcriptomic analysis results showed that many plant genes responded to Agrobacterium infection. GO (gene ontology) analysis revealed that many plant biological processes are involved during Agrobacterium-plant interactions. These processes include hormone signaling, defense response, cellular biosynthesis, and nucleic acid metabolism and so on. Key genes displaying substantial changes in their transcripts were further validated by qRT-PCR and mutant screen. More details will be presented.
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
Time : 10:15-11:00
Roohaida Othman received her PhD in Biochemistry from University of Southampton, and joined Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia as a lecturer immediately after in 1995. Her research interest is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of commercially important metabolites in plants and algae. Her research group has employed tools of molecular biology, biochemistry and physiology as well as genomics and transgenics technology platforms to study the enzymes involved in these pathways. They have also developed protocols for higher plant and algae RNA extraction methods and overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. She has been Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Tropical Plant Physiology since 2010 and has been reviewer for several journals including International Journal of Food Properties.
Statement of the Problem: Persicaria minor (synonym Polygonum minus). produces a broad range of secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpenes that contribute towards the unique aroma of this plant. In an effort to understand the biosynthesis of these compounds, candidate genes involved in the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway have been identified from an expressed sequences tags (ESTs) collection. The purpose of this study is to characterize a gene which was initially identified as an-alpha farnesene synthase gene from the EST studies. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The full length cDNAs from P. minus was isolated and cloned into Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis and Arabidopsis thaliana following standard protocols. Enzymatic assay for the recombinant sesquiterpene synthase was performed using farnesyl diphosphate as substrate and the products from the enzymatic assays were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Findings: The full length sequence of P. minor sesquiterpene synthase cDNA clone (PmSTS) was 2035 bp in size and was expressed in E. coli as a ~65 kDa soluble protein whereas in L. lactis, the size of the recombinant protein was ~63kDa. For enzyme activity assay, the major product of the recombinant PmSTS in E. coli was α-farnesene whilst for L. lactis recombinant protein, the major product was 𝛽-sesquiphellandrene with beta-farnesene as a minor product. Subsequent expression in A. thaliana also produced transgenic lines with increased 𝛽-sesquiphellandrene production. Finally, new expression in E. coli produced a recombinant PmSTS that released 𝛽-sesquiphellandrene as a major product and 𝛽-farnesene as a minor product, similar to the L. lactis recombinant protein. Conclusion & Significance: The identity of a plant sesquiterpene synthase has been confirmed as a 𝛽-sesquiphellandrene synthase. The correct identity of the gene was finally achieved due to the updated version of the mass spectral library used in identifying the products from GC-MS.
University of Sumatera Utara, Indonesia
Time : 11:20-12:05
Yusuf Leonard Henuk is a Professor in the Faculty of Agriculture at University of Sumatera Utara (USU), Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia. He received a Bachelor’s degree (S1: ‘Sarjana’) from the the University of Nusa Cendana in Kupang-Indonesia from 1980-1984. He obtained Master in Rural Science (M.Rur.Sc.) from the University of New England in from 1991 – 1995 and continued Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) from the University of Queensland both in Australia from 1998 – 2001. Prof. Henuk was a prolific writer and has published many articles in either national or international journal within the field of agriculture and mainly animal sciences. He also participated in many national in Indonesia and international seminars.
Indonesia’s biodiversity is ranked 3rd after Brazil and Zaire. It is home to 30,000 out of 40,000 medicinal herbal plants in the world. Medicinal plants or known in Indonesia as “Tanaman Biofarmaka” are defined as plant which are useful for traditional medicine. It is consumed from part of the plant, either in the form of leaf, fruit, tuber or root. The roles of medicinal plants as traditional medicine in Indonesia has always been a part of culture that has been passed down from generation to generation. By trial-and-error, the country’s early inhabitants learned how to distinguish useful plants with beneficial effects from those that were either toxic or non-active used as traditional medicine. They picked, kept and used medicinal plants to satisfy their basic needs and even experimented on combinations of plants or processing methods to gain optimal results. Throughout the centuries, Indonesia’s indigenous people developed traditional medicines from plants identified by their forefathers for curing illnesses and keeping their health. In general, there are about 30,000 species of medicinal plants owned by Indonesia, and potentially to develop herbal products which have equal quality with modern medicines. Currently, there are 15 important type of medicines plants and herbs in Indonesia. They are ginger, galangal, east Indian galangal, turmeric, zingiber aromaticum, Java turmeric, black turmeric, Chinese keys, sweet root/calamus, Java cardamom, Indian mulberry, phaleria macrocarpa, verbenanceae, king of bitter, and aloevera. These type of medicinal plants can be divided into two groups: rhizome and non-rhizome. There are three provinces known as the main producer of medicinal plants used for traditional medicine in Indonesia. In conclusion, medicinal plants and herbs in Indonesia used as traditional medicine has also contributed significantly in supporting the national economy, availability of food products, health and cosmetics, trades, construction of gross domestic product and absorption of worker.
- Traditional medicine | Plant Nutrition and Plant Hormones | Crop & Soil Science | Agriculture & Horticulture | Plant genetics and Plant genomics
Location: Avani Atrium Bangkok
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
University of Agricultural Sciences Bengaluru, India
University of Agricultural Sciences, India
Title: Title: Bio-molecules induced resistance against Cucumber Mosaic Virus disease in Gherkins (Cucumis anguria L.)
Time : 12:05-12:40
N Nagaraju graduated in University of Agricultural Sciences Bengaluru and expertise in Plant Virology. He worked as an Extension Pathologist between 1998-2010 and expertise in diagnosis, identification of plant disease and recommending suitable management practices. He is serving in UAS, Bengaluru since 20 years and worked on different plant viruses viz., Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV), Pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV), Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (ToSPO) and other Gemini viruses. He developed integrated management practices for the important viruses for sustainable agriculture and were included in University Package of Practice. He is presently working on use of bio-molecules for inducing defense in crop plant against Plant Viruses.
Synthetic chemical based pesticides are extensively being used in agriculture to manage plant diseases particularly plant viruses transmitting through insect vectors. Since non availability of viricides as such. However the vector management through pesticides is the only means of chemical control. However, continuous use of pesticides for the management of vectors of plant viruses cause severe and long term environmental pollution and are even carcinogenic to humans and animals. Furthermore, insect vectors become resistant to many of these chemicals resulted in resurgence of pests. Management of viral pathogens by using organic products viz., plant extracts, seaweed extracts etc., has gained importance. Antiviral effect of seaweed extracts viz., Euchema spinosum J. Agardh, Kappaphycus alvarezii doty-1, Kappaphycus alvarezii doty-2 and Halymenia durvillae Bory saint-vincent at 10ml L-1, 4ml L-1, 6ml L-1 and 10ml L-1 respectively including commercial products viz., Vacciplant and Jingo were tested for their optimum dose under field condition against Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) was determined based on ELISA values of CMV infected gherkin samples during kharif and rabi 2016. Seaweed extracts Kappaphycus alvarezii-1 (4ml L-1) sprayed gherkin plants recorded less mean PDI of 16.65 and 16.06 with an increased mean yield (13.33 t ha-1) followed by Halymenia durvillae (10ml L-1) with mean PDI (18.34 and 18.98) and mean yield (12.17 t ha-1) compared to control with mean PDI (31.77 and 31.96) and mean yield (8.74 t ha-1) respectively. The active principle present in these two seaweed extracts are mainly polysaccharides viz., kappa-carrageenan and sulphated galactan respectively. Hypothetically, polysaccharides might have helped in triggering defense by inducing plant hormones/signaling molecules viz., salicylic acid, Jasmonic acid or ethylene by inducing ISR.
University of Wyoming, USA
Title: Legume adoption practices in the central great plains of USA for sustainable agricultural production in the face of climate change
Time : 13:40: 14:15
Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Iran
Time : 14:15-14:50
Bahman Amiri Larijani is rice agronomist and has his expertise in ecological and phenological simulation of growth, development and yield of rice crop. His favorites are the ideal type of plant and yield and yield component analysis based on morphology, physiology and phenology of rice plant in relation with environment and field condition.
Many higher plants, including rice, are composed of successive stem segments called phytomer. The phytomer concept has long been recognized among grass scientists. Each phytomer consists of an internode of the stem with one leaf, one tiller bud and several adventitious (nodal) roots. The coordinated development of stem, tiller bud, and adventitious roots in each phytomer corresponds to the phyllochronic time in rice. The phytomer concept has provided a sound botanical basis for understanding plant development, canopy architecture, and the dynamic nature of plant canopies in the field. The number of phytomers per axis decreased with branching order and rank. An analysis of plant dynamics showed synchronous emergence of the leaves on the main stem and on the tillers up to flowering. Axillary bud development into tillers depended on their topological location and plant developmental stage. Conclusions the timing and frequency of flowering tillers complied with rules of priority depending on their order, rank and emergence time. The tiller phyllochron differs from the main stem (MS) phyllochron during both the vegetative and reproductive phases. But leaf emergence on the MS and tiller development are nevertheless closely linked and result in synchrony between leaf emergence rates on the MS and tillers. Moreover, the final number of leaves on a rice tiller at a given position is strongly dependent on the MS leaf number. The probability of tillers reaching heading depended on their topological position and emergence time. There is synchronous appearance of tillers and leaves on the MS throughout plant development until flowering, and a relation between emergence time and tiller flowering. I found the idea of planting special ranked phytomer (internode) for faster heading and reduce the length of the growing period in rice.
University of Allahabad, India
Time : 14:50-15:25
Kaustubha Nand Bhatt is a Professor at G. B. Pant Social Science Institute, Allahabad Central University, Allahabad. He is an environmental economist and has worked on several developmental issues. He has authored, edited and co-edited several books including System of Rice Intensification, Agrarian Change and Small Farmers: Super Markets, Viability and Food Policy, Child Labour in India: Empirical Evidence from Glass and Bidi Industries, Consumers, Consumerism and Consumer Protection: Indian Context, Disaster Risk Management Programme in Uttar Pradesh: Learning from Some Case Studies, Population, Environment and Health: Emerging Concerns, Social Development, Uttarakhand: Ecology, Economy and Society and has published in various journals.
Statement of the Problem: System of Rice (also Root or Crop) Intensification (SRI/SCI)) is a promising resource conserving method of crop cultivation grounded in the physical and biological sciences. The method is now producing agricultural ecosystems that could engage various stakeholders in a participatory manner to increase yield, resource use efficiencies and income. This paper analyzes the experiences of the farming communities in practicing SRI/SCI from different parts of India as an alternative method of sustainable agriculture.
Methodology and Theoretical Orientation: Based on secondary data sources, the paper explores the outcomes of the SRI/SCI for enhancing productivity and environmental sustainability. The post War modern agricultural practices led to both biotic and abiotic stress sacrificing ecological security and biodiversity for maximizing output. SRI is a shift from input centric to farm and farmer centric method. The method is a process driven approach and a return to learning by doing.
Findings: The SRI, perhaps, is not new to India. In the 1920s farmers in Tamil Nadu practiced single seeding planting and obtained a yield of 6 tonnes per hectare, when the average yield then was 1.5 tonnes per hectare. Presently almost a million farmers are practicing SRI in India in more than 350 districts. It became part of the National Food Security Mission in 2007. A farmer from the ‘backward’ region of Bihar in India has claimed a yield of 22.4 t/ha of rice using SRI method in 2016. Many farmers across the country are learning the practices of SRI from one another. The core practices of SRI have been applied to sugarcane, wheat, ragi, mustard and vegetable production with success. Conclusion: We are indeed poised for a fine blending of farmers’ knowledge and experiences and the present practices for agro ecological crop management in the future.
Saraswathi Narayanan College, India
Title: Impact of neem and pongamia oil formulation and plant extracts for the management of berry borers of organic coffee plants as part of coffee integrated pest management
Time : 15:25-16:00
He has been involved in Coffee Production both organic and conventional for the last 7 years in the Western Ghats of Palni hills. At present, a Doctoral course student in the Department of Botany, Saraswathi Narayanan College (Autonomous) Perungudi, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India. Recently, He won the second prize in International Conference. He has served as a Manager in two Coffee Estates and modernized the estates. His interest and commitment to ecology and plant science began in 1990. As a under graduate he published his first Biotechnology paper on Plant Regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from mature leaf explants of Eryngium Foetidum, a condiment in plant cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 56: 131-137, 1999, Netherlands. Earlier he also has served as a Principal and Correspondent of St. Joseph’s Industrial School an ISO9000-2000 certified Institution, Ooty for five years. As a Philanthropist and Quality manager he has qualified himself in MBA Personnel Management and diploma in Magnetic therapy and Acupressure
Three consecutive years’ experiments were conducted at the organic coffee fields of Loyola Estate, Sirumalai near Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India during 2013, 14 and 15 to evaluate bioefficiency of plant oils and leaf, garlic extracts against berry borers in the chosen organic coffee field. Among these plant oils tested, spot application of Neem and pongamia seed oils along with emulsifier was found to be very effective in the initial stage causing 90 to 94 percent reduction in borer population over control after three rounds of spraying in the final year. The overall borer population was found to be 90 percent reduced in the coffee plants sprayed with mixture of Neem with pongamia oil 3 percent and 2 percent of garlic extract even at the later stage of borer attack. This was followed by strict regulation of shade as per integrated pest management techniques. The percentage of damaged green fruits in the first year were 36 percent followed by 22 percent in the second year and 14 percent in the third year in treated plants against control 100%. Further, the mean grade index recorded at the time of harvest was also very low which statistically different from chemically treated plants. The other plant oil formulation viz., Pongamia and Iluppai were less effective and the leaf extract. Ipomea, Jatropha, Neem, Acorus and Chilli were not effective.
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh
Title: Cell and tissue specific regulation of sodium homeostasis conferring salinity tolerance in rice
Time : 16:00-16:35