Day 1 :
University of Wyoming, USA
Keynote: Understanding Plant Diversity and Physiology for Resilient Production Systems and Environmental Benefits
Time : 9:30-10:20
Presently, M. Anowarul Islam is working as an Associate Professor at the Department of Plant Sciences of University of Wyoming, USA. His research and outreach activities aim to develop modern and innovative research and outreach programs on Agronomy that includes: germplasm search and evaluation for selection/cultivar development; establishment and best management practices (BMP) for profitable and sustainable crops and livestock production; grazing management and integration with cropping systems; establishment and incorporation of legumes (e.g., alfalfa, sainfoin, birdsfoot trefoil; cicer milkvetch, medics) into the grass systems; alternative/multipurpose use of forages, e.g., bioenergy crops (switchgrass), specialty crops (fenugreek, quinoa, chick pea), small grains; forage nutritive value and seed production. Additionally, he teaches courses (Forage Crop Science, Thesis Research, Dissertation research, Research Apprenticeship, Research in Crops) and advises undergraduate and mentors graduate students.Presently, M. Anowarul Islam is working as an Associate Professor at the Department of Plant Sciences of University of Wyoming, USA. His research and outreach activities aim to develop modern and innovative research and outreach programs on Agronomy that includes: germplasm search and evaluation for selection/cultivar development; establishment and best management practices (BMP) for profitable and sustainable crops and livestock production; grazing management and integration with cropping systems; establishment and incorporation of legumes (e.g., alfalfa, sainfoin, birdsfoot trefoil; cicer milkvetch, medics) into the grass systems; alternative/multipurpose use of forages, e.g., bioenergy crops (switchgrass), specialty crops (fenugreek, quinoa, chick pea), small grains; forage nutritive value and seed production. Additionally, he teaches courses (Forage Crop Science, Thesis Research, Dissertation research, Research Apprenticeship, Research in Crops) and advises undergraduate and mentors graduate students.
Forage crops play a major role in the nation’s economy, especially in the economy of the western states of USA due to presence of vast grasslands. However, forage yields in these states have been declining. For example, in Wyoming, forage yields are below the national average over the past few years. There are a number of factors that contribute to this low productivity and sustainability. Examples include declining plant diversity, reduction of biodiversity, less adapted plant species, monoculture practices, and soil degradation, especially soil mining. Many studies conducted locally, regionally, and internationally suggest that maintaining plant diversity with adapted species is important for the productivity, efficiency, and resiliency of grassland production systems. For instance, a recent extensive review shows that mixtures of species produce an average of 1.7 times more biomass than species monocultures and are more productive than the monoculture. Also, it is shown that, in some experiments, diverse polycultures achieve greater biomass than their single most productive species. The net effect of diversity and the probability of polycultures are more productive than their most productive species which increases through time. This occurs because of the magnitude of complementarity which increases when the experiments are run for a longer time. Also it is shown at eight European field sites, a simulated study by synthesizing grassland communities with different numbers of plant species, that there is an overall log-linear reduction of average aboveground biomass with loss of species. Field studies being conducted at different locations in Wyoming demonstrate that mixtures (binary or polycultures) produce more biomass with high quality compared to monoculture. There are also positive impacts of mixtures on stand persistence, soil properties and environment (Figure 1), microbial population, and economic returns. Details about plant diversity and its impacts will be discussed in the presentation.
University of Illinois, USA
Time : 10:20-11:10
Mohammad Babadoost received his M.S. in plant pathology from Washington State University and Ph.D. in plant pathology from North Carolina State University. In 1999, he joined the faculty of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and he is now a Professor of Plant Pathology and Extension Specialist. Mohammad conducts research and extension programs on the biology and management of vegetable and fruit crops diseases, and teaches “Plant Disease Diagnosis and Management” and “Outreach Education Skills.” He has served as an editor of the APS-FNT and ASHS HortTechnology and as a reviewer for more than 20 journals. He has published 1 books, 4 book chapter, 1 monograph, 10 bulletins, 51 refereed articles, 86 articles in proceedings, 88 abstracts, and 175 article in newsletters. Dr. Babadoost has developed a profound commitment to sharing his expertise in developing countries to advance the science of plant pathology and establishing food security in the world.
Bacterial spot of cucurbits, caused by Xanthomonas cucurbitae, is an emerging disease in the United States (US) and other cucurbit growing areas of the world. The pathogen can infect all cucurbit crops, but its major hosts are pumpkins and winter squash. Leaves and fruits of cucurbits are infected by X. cucurbitae at all growth stages. Infected fruits are usually colonized by opportunistic fungi and bacteria and rot. Our surveys in the North Central Region if the US during 2012-2013 showed that 159 of 180 and 71 of 79 of pumpkin and squash fields, respectively, had fruits infected with X. cucurbitae. The average incidence of fruits with bacterial spot in all pumpkin and squash fields surveyed was 25 and 19%, respectively. We identify the pathogen based on the colony morphology on yeast dextrose agar (YDC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test using RST2/RST3 primers, and pathogenicity test on susceptible pumpkin ‘Howden’. X. cucurbitae survived in infected leaves and fruits in the field for more than 24 months. Also, X. cucurbitae survived longer than 18 months in the seeds at 4 and 22°C and remained viable. No cultivar of cucurbits resistant to X. cucurbitae is available. We eradicated the pathogen in the naturally-infected and artificially infested seeds by hot-water treatment at 55°C for 15 min and HCl treatment at 0.5% concentration for 40 min. Also, in our field trials, copper oxychloride + copper hydroxide (Badge X2 DF), copper sulfate (Cuprofix Ultra 40 DF), oxytetracycline (Mycoshield 40 WSP), copper sulfate pentahydrate (Phyton-016B), copper hydroxide (Kocide-3000 46.1 DF) plus acibenzolar-s-methyl (ActiGard 50 WG), Kocide-3000 46.1 DF plus famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos 50D WG), an extract from Reynoutria sachalinensis (Regalia), and B. subtilis (Serenade ASO) were effective in reducing incidence and severity of bacterial spot on both leaves and fruits compared to controls.
- Plant physiology | Plant disease and plant pathogens| Plant and agricultural Biotechnology | Traditional medicine |
Location: Holiday Inn Bangkok
University of Wyoming, USA
University of Agricultural Sciences, India
University of Agricultural Sciences, India
Title: Molecular Characterization, Epidemiology and Integrated Management of Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) in Papaya (Carica papaya L.)
Time : 11:30-12:05
Dr. N. Nagaraju graduated in University of Agricultural Sciences Bengaluru and expertise in plant virology. He worked as an Extension Pathologist during 1998-2010 and expertise in diagnosis, identification of plant disease and recommending suitable management practices. He is serving in UAS, Bengaluru since 20 years and worked on different plant viruses viz., Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV), Pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV), Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (ToSPO) and other Gemini viruses. He developed integrated management practices for the important viruses for sustainable agriculture and were included in University Package of Practice. He is presently working on use of bio-molecules for inducing defense in crop plant against plant viruses.
Papaya cultivation is worldwide ravaged by Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) disease. Surveys conducted in Southern Karnataka during 2012-2014 revealed the maximum PRSV incidence in Bangalore Rural (77.53%) followed by Bangalore Urban (68.89%), Kolar (65.00%) and Chikkaballapura (52.78%) districts. Monitoring of the population of different aphid species during August-2013 to July-2014 using yellow sticky traps revealed the occurrence of eight aphid species. Of which, three species viz., Aphis gossypii (66.04%), A. craccivora (26.80%) and Myzus persicae (2.12%) were regularly trapped throughout the year. Transmission studies proved that, M. persicae (53.33%) was more efficient vector in transmitting PRSV followed by A. gossypii (46.66%) and A. craccivora (26.66%). The aphid population was peak when rainfall was below 8.00 mm with temperature range of 17-350C, relative humidity of 30-90% and with wind speed of 3-5km/hr. Based on the symptoms on differential var. Red lady, the PRSV isolates viz., BRD-1, BRH-1, BUH-1 were considered as severe, while MMD-1 and MML-1 as mild isolates. Partial characterization of isolate BUH-1 by CP gene showed highest homology of 98% with South Indian and 87-92% with Asian isolates. Among the defence inducing molecules Salicylic Acid@ 0.002%, Silicic Acid@ 0.2% and Boric Acid@ 0.2% found effective in reducing the disease under field and glasshouse condition. In PRSVdisease management studies, growing papaya as intercrop with African Tall maize (1:1) and Grand Naine banana (2:1) as live barriers found effective recording 60-90% disease control with maximum yield in varieties Arka Surya (15.78 kg and 14.34 kg/plant) and Red lady (33.28 and 30.37 kg/plant) with C-B ratio of 1:9.2 and 1:6.5 in Red lady and with 1:3 and 1:1 in Surya respectively. Growing papaya with silver reflective mulch recorded as next most profitable treatment with C:B ratio of 1:1.9 and1:6.2 by controlling 90 and 100% disease in Arka Surya and Red Lady respectively.
National Research Centre, Egypt
Time : 12:05-12:40
Ibrahim E Elshahawy is a plant pathologist researcher in NRC, Egypt. He has expertise in biological control area. Evaluation of biocontrol agents for controlling root-rot disease of many crops such as grapevine, peanut. Field application with biocontrol agents for controlling white rot disease of onion and garlic. Evaluation of safe postharvest treatments for controlling postharvest diseases of orange fruits, apple fruits and garlic bulbs.
Statement of the Problem: Tomato transplants (30 days old) grown in fields at Fayoum and Beni Suef governorates in Egypt, developed symptoms of wilting with brown-to-black cankers on the lower stems and root rot. However, this problem has not been previously studied in Egypt. The purpose of this research is to study the outbreak of this disease, pathogenicity tests of the isolated fungi, identification of the causal agent and the possibility of different biocontrol agents to control the disease under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. Methodology: A survey was conducted in August of 2016 on the outbreak of these symptoms at Fayoum and Beni Suef governorates in Northern Upper Egypt. Pathogens were isolated from infected parts by culturing the affected tissues on V8 medium. Pathogenicity tests were conducted on healthy tomato seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions. Monitor potential of biocontrol agents against the pathogen were conducted in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. Findings: The diseased plants having the above symptoms were prevalent and a severe losses in established plants was found (near 50%) in both governorates. Sixteen fungal isolates belonging to five genera were isolated from affected tissues. Phytophthora capsici recorded the highest frequency of occurrence and was found to be prevalent in most cases. Pathogenicity tests were performed and the fungus was successfully re-isolated from symptomatic plants, fulfilling Koch’s postulates. Identification of Phytophthora capsici Leonian was based on cultural, morphological and molecular approaches. The latter using the primer DC 6 (5´-GAGGGACTTTTGGGTAATCA- 3´, Bonnants et al., 1997). Soil drench with the selected strains belonging to the genus Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Trichoderma, significantly reduced disease severity and increased the growth of tomato plants compared to untreated controls in greenhouse experiments. Conclusion & Significance: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of phytophthora blight by P. capsici from Egypt. The results indicate that certain Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Trichoderma strains are effective against P. capsici on tomato, and improved plant growth.
Green World Genetics, Malaysia
Time : 13:40-14:15
Rajeev Taggar has been associated with biotechnology in the seed industry for about 20 years. As a Scientist in-charge of molecular breeding activities, he worked with Bayer CropScience, India, Krishidhan Seeds, India, ICRISAT, India and Green World Genetics Sdn Bhd, Malaysia (Presently working). Working closely with a team of crop breeders, he established molecular breeding laboratories and molecular breeding programmes for his employer organizations. He got professional training in plant biotechnological techniques from Germany on a DSE-sponsored course, from the central research facility of Nunhems Zaden, the Netherlands and from the John Innes Centre (U.K.).
The indigenous seed industry in most developing countries comprises of small and medium scale seed industry. This is supplemented by satellite research laboratories and sales & marketing units of the large trans-national companies. From the angle of application of plant biotechnology, some of the factors playing a decisive role for the indigenous small and medium scale seed industry include quick delivery of results, readily available technologies, minimal risk in investment, proven technologies and minimal financial resources. The large scale trans-national seed companies on the other hand have the investment potential for capital-intensive research and novel research with distant returns. The academia in both, the developing and the developed countries tend to be driven more by novel research having publication potential rather than by application value. Such a situation presents the indigenous small and medium scale seed industry in the developing nations with a unique challenge of having to do with a technical work force who have a gap in training and application and to deliver with limited capital resources. This talk will cover an overview of plant biotechnology. An attempt will be made to present the actual seed industry situation in the developing countries. Plant biotechnology will be sectioned into various areas of application, of which the small and medium scale seed industry is one. The areas of strength and weakness will be discussed. With the advent of low cost sequencers, the molecular-breeding scenario is likely to change at all levels. A paradigm shift in challenges from infrastructure to analytics is expected. Discovery research versus applied research will be discussed. The clarity shed on the applications of plant biotechnology in developing countries should be a handy tool for the aspiring plant biotech professionals, seed industry in the developing countries and for the governmental policy makers.
University of Isfahan, Iran
Title: Silver Nanoparticles And Silver Ions: Oxidative Stress responses and toxicity in potato (Solanum Tuberosum L) grown in vitro
Time : 14:15-14:50
Ali Akbar Ehsanpour has more than 25 years experience in evaluation of antioxidant systems in plants under in vitro stresses such as nano silver, salt and drought. Now he has focused on nano particle toxicity in plants and he is concerned on toxicity of nano particle for human health.
Under in vitro conditions, we examined the effects ofsilver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver (Ag) ions on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in terms of silver accumulation, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS),oxidative stress responses, and antioxidative defense systems. At all concentrations (except at 2 mg.L-1), the amount of Ag in the shoots and roots of Ag ion-treated plantletswas significantly higher than in plantlets treated with AgNPs. In both treatments, total ROS and superoxide anionswere increased at concentrations greaterthan 2 mg.L-1. Damage caused by oxidative stress, such as ion leakage and cell death, was significantly higher in plantlets treated with AgNPs than those treated with Ag ions. Significant increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase (GR),werefound in both AgNP-treated, and Ag ion-treated plantlets compared to the control. However, in AgNP-treated plantlets, GR activity was significantly decreased at 20 mg.L-1. A significant reduction in glutathione (GSH), ascorbate (ASA), and the ratios of GSH to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and ASA to oxidized ascorbate (DHA) were observed in plantlets treated with both AgNPs and Ag ions at concentrations higher than 2 mg.L-1. Moreover, a greater decrease in GSH and ASA contents was seen in plantlets treated with AgNPs compared to those treated with Ag ions. The present study indicates that both AgNPs and Ag ion treatments impose oxidative stress on potato plantlets under in vitro conditions. Furthermore, based on plantlets’ responses to oxidative damage, the observed alteration in the activities of radical scavenging enzymes and the depletion of GSH and ASA, AgNPs seem to have higher toxicity than the equivalent mass of Ag ions.
University of Sumatera Utara, Indonesia
Time : 14:50-15:25
Yusuf Leonard Henuk is a Professor in the Faculty of Agriculture at University of Sumatera Utara (USU), Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia. He received a Bachelor’s degree (S1: ‘Sarjana’) from the the University of Nusa Cendana in Kupang-Indonesia from 1980-1984. He obtained Master in Rural Science (M.Rur.Sc.) from the University of New England in from 1991 – 1995 and continued Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) from the University of Queensland both in Australia from 1998 – 200. Prof. Henuk was a prolific writer and has published many articles in either national or international journal within the field of agriculture and mainly animal sciences. He also participated in many national in Indonesia and international seminars.ˏ e.g. The 25th World Poultry Congress (“Invited Speaker”: China National Convention Center, Beijing, Chinaˏ 05 – 09 September, 2016).
Many crops that supply carbohydrates grow well in Indonesia, including cereals (rice, maize, sorghum, foxtailmillet), tubers (cassava, sweetpotato, potato, arrowroot, canna), and tree crops (sago, breadfruit, banana). The variety of staple foods consumed by Indonesians was diverse. During the period 2004 –2013 (Table 1)ˏ the four main staple crops in Indonesia were rice (53.5% of diet), cassava (22.2% of diet), maize (18.9% of diet), and potatoes (4.99% of diet). In 2012, for exampleˏIndonesian rice consumption was about 130kg/person/year, higher than the average world level of 60kg/person/year. Over the last ten years, except for DKI Jakarta, all provinces increased cereal production from 2004 – 2013. The largest increases were in Kepulauan Riau (11.43%) and Gorontalo (10.51%). Exports of major food commodities are concentrated in few countries. For maize dan rice, in particular, the global export market is largely dominated by top five exporters on globally trade grainsˏ i.e. The United States, Argentinaˏ Brazilˏ Franceˏ China and Thailandˏ Vietnamˏ Indiaˏ The United Statesˏ Pakistanˏ respectively. Indonesia has achieved the MDG hunger target, by reducing the proportion of undernourished people from 19.7% of the population in 1990–92 to 8.7% in 2012–2014. The poultry industry consumes approximately 83% of Indonesia’s animal feed. Aquaculture consumes 11% and the remaining 6% is consumed by cattle and swine. On average, livestock feed is composed of corn (50%), soybean meal (15-20%), corn gluten meal (3%), CPO (2%), fish meal (5%), rice bran (15%), wheat pollard (8%), and premix (0.6%). Indonesian feed millers are heavily reliant on imported feed ingredients from the top five exporters on globally trade grains above. Beef alone accounted for about 19% with 2.50kg/capita/year of Indonesia’s total meat consumption compared to broiler of 55% with 3.751kg/capita/year, native chickens of 11% with 0.528kg/capita/year, pork of 8% with 0.156kg/capita/year, goat of 7% with 0.111kg/capita/year, and others species 1% with its total per capita meat consumption from livestock in Indonesia is still lower compared to many countries and they generally increases with higher income. Rank and score of global food index of Indonesia from 2012 to 2015 as follows: 64ˏ 66ˏ 72ˏ 74 and 46.8ˏ45.6ˏ 46.5ˏ 46.7 respectively. Indonesia is in “Moderate Environment” in 2016 with overall rank 13/23 in Asia and Pacific by income level with overall score of 50.6/100 (Map 1).
University of Isfahan, Iran
Title: Effects of Transient Silencing of Heat Shock Proteins on Photosystem II Efficiency during Adaptation to Salinity Stress in Plants
Time : 15:45-16:20
Mansour Shariati has more than 23 years experience in plant physiology and physiology and biotechnology of unicellular green alga Dunaliella.
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) have vital roles in plant adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. These chaperon molecules expressed in almost all kinds of stresses in plants and are well known to be contributed in facilitating protein refolding, preventing protein dysfunctions and eventually reestablishing of cellular homeostasis under severe condition. Genome wide analysis revealed that HSPs are classified into 5 families based on their molecular weights and evolutionary conservation including HSP100 (Clp), HSP90, HSP70 (DnaK), HSP60 (GroEL) and small heat shock proteins (sHSPs). In this study, we used VIGS (virus induced gene silencing) to investigate the role of HSPs during stress in Nicotiana benthamiana. For this aim, we cloned the gene fragments of smHSP, HSP70 and HSP90 from Capparis spinosa L. plant into the tobacco rattle virus vector, pTRV2 to heterologously suppress the corresponding endogenes of N. benthamiana. Silenced plants were exposed to salt stress (100 mM NaCl) for 21 days and Chl a fluorescence induction kinetics was analysed by using the OJIP-test, various parameters like FV/FO (Oxygen evolving complex activity), FV/FM (The maximal PSII photochemistry efficiency), φPO (Maximum quantum yield for primary photochemistry), ψO (Probability that an electron moves further than QA), φEO (Quantum yield for electron transport), DIO/RC (Dissipation per active reaction center), φPO /(1- φPO) (The efficiency of light reaction), ψO /(1- ψO) (The efficiency of biochemical reaction) and PIABS (Performance index). Compare to smHSP and HSP90, silencing of HSP70 was found to have stronger negative effect especially after salinity on some parameters related to the donor site of electron in PSII [Fv/Fo, and φPO /(1- φPO) and, the parameters dependent on the acceptor site of the electron such as φEO, ψO and ψO /( ψO). It was also represented that simultaneous silencing of the HSP70 gene and salinity treatment resulted in a significant decrease PIABS and DIo/RC. So these results reflecting among the HSPs tested in the present study, HSP70 silencing cause severe injuries in photosynthetic machinery especially after salt stress.
The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Israel
Title: Mycorrhizal association between the desert truffle Terfezia boudieri Chatin and Helianthemum sessiliflorum is mediated by fungal auxin and alters plant morphology, physiology and fitness to arid conditions
Time : 16:20- 16:55
In the last 10 years, my research focus has been the desert truffle Terfezia boudieri that forms mycorrhizal association with its host plant Helianthemum sessiliflorum. I am studying the fungus at several levels including physiology, ecology and molecular biology. I participate in a comprehensive project to sequence the entire genomes of 23 fungi including our two desert truffle species, in the frame of The European Community Sequencing Program entitled "Exploring the Genome Diversity of Mycorrhizal Fungi to Understand the Evolution and Functioning of Symbiosis in Woody Shrubs and Trees"
The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) desert truffle Terfezia boudieri Chatin produces edible fruit bodies and forms symbiosis with its host plant Helianthemum sessiliflorum (Cistaceae) in the Negev desert of Israel. The symbiosis is vital for both partners' survival under desert conditions. Diurnal measurements revealed that mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher rates of photosynthesis (35%), transpiration (18%), and night respiration (49%) than non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. Consequently, M plants exhibited higher biomass accumulation, higher shoot-to-root ratios, and improved water use efficiency compared to NM plants. Total chlorophyll content was higher in M plants, and the ratio between chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b was altered in M plants. Calculation of the photosynthetic activation energy indicated lower energy requirements for CO2 assimilation in M plants than in NM plants (48.62 kJ mol-1 and 61.56 kJ mol-1, respectively). Continuous measurements provided a complete picture of the daily physiological differences brought on by the ectomycorrhizal relationships. To secure a successful encounter, in the course of evolution, both partners have responded by evolving special signals exchange that facilitates recognition. Study of pre mycorrhizal signal exchange revealed previously unrecognized root-fungus interaction mediated by the fungal auxin. The secreted fungal auxin induced negative taproot gravitropism, attenuated taproot growth rate and inhibited initial host development. Auxin also induced expression of Arabidopsis carriers AUX1 and PIN1, both involved in the gravitropic response. Exogenous application of auxin fully mimicked that one induced by the ectomycorrhizal fungus. Co-cultivation of Arabidopsis auxin receptor mutants tir1-1, tir1-1 afb2-3, tir1-1 afb1-3 afb2-3 and tir1-1 afb2-3 afb3-4 with Terfezia confirmed that auxin is the signaling molecule, which induces the root phenotype. In a model proposed here, the fungal auxin induces horizontal root development, coordinates growth rates between partners, and lateral root induction that increases the availability of accessible sites for colonization at the soil plane of fungal spore abundance.